Consumer Protection Regulations in Ancient MENA Civilizations


  • Fatima Al Samarae Lawyer, Department of Private Law, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Mahmoud Ismail Associate Professor, Department of Private Law, Applied Science Private University, Amman, Jordan


Consumer protection, MENA, Islamic law, Commercial trade


This study aims to give a broad investigation of early civilized conscience of the consumer protection in Ancient Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The consumer starts the economic affairs and its role has always been revered by the growth of the market. In consequence, a suitable consumer protection permits the economic systems to work better. MENA legislations mention an arrangements of consumer protection; for example, so does the Code of Hammurabi, but only in a commercial perspective, and also, an early movement in defense of consumers was born in the Islamic law. Proposing modern resolutions on consumer rights protection results of a review of consumer law acquis, and aims at introducing a full consistent protection. The norms governing the laws applicable to consumer rights have been defined by the ancient civilizations. An ephemeral framework of the history of shaping of consumer protection rules is presented by this study in order to demonstrate how the problem of improving consumer protection law has evolved in the MENA region as well as increased in importance; this shall affect modern resolutions proposed in the modern time. In other meaning, reviewing consumer rights protection in ancient MENA countries shall help law makers to develop modern legislations with consideration to more original perspectives, since the ancient civilizations had primitive human right vision, allied to essential human needs.


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How to Cite

F. A. Samarae and M. Ismail, “Consumer Protection Regulations in Ancient MENA Civilizations”, IJRESM, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 73–78, Jan. 2023, Accessed: Apr. 18, 2024. [Online]. Available: