Unveiling the Ancient Saraswati: Tracing Paleochannels through Geological Signatures from foothills of Himalayas to Rann of Kutch


  • Pankaj Bhardwaj Assistant Archaeologist, Archaeological Survey of India, Chandigarh Circle, Chandigarh, India




Saraswati, Lineaments, Malani Rocks, Paleochannels, Geological significance


In ancient times, the glaciers of the Himalayas gave rise to numerous rivers, most of which contributed to the emergence of different civilizations. Among these rivers was the Saraswati River, whose journey spanned from the Himalayas to the Rann of Kutch in Gujarat, shaping the landscapes it traversed. To elucidate the historical course of rivers like the Saraswati, scientists have turned to surface features such as lineaments, faults and joints that provide evidence of deep faults in the Earth's crust. In regions like Haryana, Rajasthan, and Gujarat, several lineament structures have been identified, formed over epochs by processes like volcanism and plutonism. In particular, the Malani Igneous Formation (MIS), one of the largest felsic igneous formations in the world, extends across northwest Rajasthan and southwest Haryana. The formation's distribution is influenced by NE-SW trending lineaments, with notable examples like the Sirohi, Jhunjhunu, and Ganganagar lineaments marking its boundaries. These lineaments, extending from Rajasthan to Haryana, run northeast to southwest and help magma extrusion, facilitating the formation and expansion of the Malani rocks. Using advanced technology such as LANDSAT imagery, geoscientists have identified former river beds, including under the Thar Desert to the Rann of Kutch. This study revealed the existence of paleo-river valleys and important structural trends in the region. The geological structure along the course of the ancient Saraswati River contains important clues to the history of its paleochannels. By analyzing the size and connection to aquifers, researchers can gain insight into the river's evolution and its role in shaping the landscape. This holistic approach not only enriches our understanding of ancient river systems but also promises to influence the development of sustainable water management strategies today.


Download data is not yet available.







How to Cite

P. Bhardwaj, “Unveiling the Ancient Saraswati: Tracing Paleochannels through Geological Signatures from foothills of Himalayas to Rann of Kutch”, IJRESM, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1–4, Apr. 2024, doi: 10.5281/zenodo.10938449.